Global Landscape of OGBV
OGBV comes in a variety of forms. While, in some ways, women's experiences across the globe are comparable, there are also key differences and nuances that mean we cannot address the issue with one universal solution.
We therefore need to work to understand the issue in its entire complexity, and recognize the great range of experiences within different circumstances and contexts, in order to identify effective strategies for change.
The map below is part of a broader set of research outputs that provides an overview of the state of OGBV across the globe. It depicts the findings of our research on OGBV, highlights the variety and breadth of OGBV initiatives across the globe, showcases the work/ research of the Women's Rights Online network, highlights challenges/ barriers in addressing OGBV across the globe, and also shows what data is available on OGBV. The map includes:
- Stories: telling stories about the journeys of women who have been impacted by OGBV
- Policies and legislation: highlighting examples of government initiatives in each region with a focus on OGBV
- Case studies of OGBV initiatives: sharing examples of specific initiatives on OGBV
- Researcher profiles: profiles of the civil society organizations and researchers who have contributed to this map. The pins on the map show the areas each organization's research focused on, rather than necessarily where that organization is based.
What is the global picture?
Data & Reports
Published research on OGBV has focused predominantly on the experiences of women in the Global North. We therefore analyzed studies on OGBV in Central and Latin America, Africa, Eastern Europe and Asia, and found that OGBV is truly a global problem.
Governments & Regulation
The legislative landscape around OGBV is growing and changing. Across the globe, amendments are being made, new laws are being developed, and existing laws contested.
Global Civil Society
Civil society is at the forefront of driving anti-OGBV initiatives, including influencing policy/ legislation, training in prevention, supporting survivors, shaping the public narrative, and conducting research.
OGBV is predominantly happening on the biggest social media platforms and messaging apps. Many of their responses and proposed tools put the responsibility on women and LGBTQI+ communities and individuals to protect themselves, instead of addressing underlying structural problems.
What is the regional picture?
Existing data and research suggests OGBV is highly prevalent across Asia. However, limitations to this research mean that it is not possible to know the true extent of OGBV.
As is the case in many parts of the world, women working in the public eye in Europe are particularly disproportionately affected by OGBV. This summary focuses on both Eastern and Western Europe, and looks into what makes the regions distinctive.
The digital gender gap in Africa is the biggest in the world. It was estimated that only 19% of women had access to the Internet in 2020 across the continent, meaning that access to Internet and digital infrastructure is often addressed before tackling OGBV.
Middle East and Northern Africa
Across the MENA region, women’s experience online is shaped by patriarchal attitudes offline as well as the broader political and cultural context. Tech companies’ lack of engagement and transparency when it comes to OGBV is exacerbated by language barriers.
Experiences of OGBV in this region are shaped by an overall lack of recognition of misogyny as a social problem. This is reflected in the lack of prioritization given to the issue by governments and in the often outright hostile campaigns undermining the work of many activists and other stakeholders.